- Architecture and the Blueprint for Gender Equality: Interview with Venice Biennale Commissioner Ōta Kayoko
- Japanese Women on the Global Stage
- [2014.11.12] Read in: 日本語 |
Ōta Kayoko was appointed the commissioner of the Japanese Pavilion at the 2014 Venice Architecture Biennale, becoming the first woman to hold that position. In this interview, Ōta discusses how working overseas fostered her own global outlook and offers recommendations for Japan to transform its social outlook.
Ōta KayokoArchitectural curator and commissioner of the Japanese Pavilion at the fourteenth Venice Biennale. Exhibition organizer and book editor from 2002 to 2012 for AMO, a think tank established by the Office for Metropolitan Architecture, a Dutch architectural firm. Curated exhibitions including The Gulf (2006) and Cronocaos (2010) at the Venice Biennale; Waist Down (2005–9) for Prada; the OMA-AMO retrospective exhibition Content (2003 and 2004); and the 2009 Bi-City Biennale of Urbanism/Architecture jointly held in Shenzhen and Hong Kong. Editor of numerous works, including Project Japan: Metabolism Talks . . . (Taschen, 2011), Inside Outside: Petra Blaisse (Monacelli Press, 2009), and Post-Occupancy (Editoriale Domus, 2005). Has also edited various magazines, including a 2004–5 stint as assistant editor-in-chief of Domus. Also worked until 1993 as joint director of the Urbanism and Architecture Workshop and joint editor of the magazine Telescope.
The Benefits of Being an Outsider
INTERVIEWER Were there any difficulties that came with being the first female commissioner of the Japanese Pavilion at the Venice Biennale?
ŌTA KAYOKO Not really. When it came to conducting research and raising the necessary funds I benefited from a lot of help, not only from those in the world of architecture but also from corporations and foundations. In fact, it seemed that people were even more willing to help me out as I was a woman. But looking at the national pavilions of other participating nations, it seems that we still have rather a long way to go in terms of female leadership.
INTERVIEWER How did you meet Rem Koolhaas,(*1) director of this year’s biennale?
ŌTA In 1988 he visited Japan for an exhibition of his work in Tokyo. At the time I was involved with some colleagues in publishing an alternative architectural magazine called Telescope, and right away we requested an interview with him, which was his first in Japan. That’s how I was able to meet him at a time when he was famous as the author of Delirious New York.
In 2002, quite a while after that first meeting, I was asked to curate a major retrospective of the work of the Office for Metropolitan Architecture, the architecture firm that Koolhaas found, and its think-tank AMO at the New National Gallery in Berlin. That year, I moved to the Netherlands to begin what would be a ten-year stint working for AMO.
INTERVIEWER What kind of work were you doing before that?
ŌTA After graduating from university, I found a job working on international conferences and exhibitions under the direction of the architect Kurokawa Kishō. Although I had majored in international law, my interest in modern art and architecture led me to change course and aim for a job at an architectural firm. But since I hadn’t specialized in the study of architecture, I was an outsider then—and have been ever since. I’ve always had a slightly different perspective and outlook, and felt that this “outsider” sensibility would be of use. From the outset, I’ve stubbornly stuck to that sensibility. [Laughs]
Fewer Japanese Interns at OMA
INTERVIEWER The organization OMA is quite international, isn’t it?
ŌTA We have staff of an amazing range of nationalities, from every continent. We used to get a lot of Japanese interns coming to serve an apprenticeship at OMA, but unfortunately that’s much rarer nowadays. They’ve been replaced by Chinese and Koreans.
INTERVIEWER Are there many women working there?
ŌTA Yes, around 40% of the staff are women, and at OMA no distinction whatsoever is made between the sexes. But, looking at the architectural world as a whole, it caused a big stir in 2010 when the Venice Biennale chose its first female (and first Asian) director, Sejima Kazuyo. I think this shows that, even internationally, everything still revolves around men.
Looking Back on a Century of Modernization
INTERVIEWER What is the aim of the current exhibition?
ŌTA The Venice Architecture Biennale now has 66 national pavilions, along with two main venues overseen by the director. This year’s director, Koolhaas, invited the national pavilions to work together on a kind of global research project, and most of the participating nations agreed. The project, titled Absorbing Modernity 1914–2014, calls for each country to look back at its architecture over the past century to see how it has changed as a result of modernization, and also to understand what traditions and unique characteristics were lost during that time. It is the first project of its kind in the history of the Biennale, and I think it has been a huge success.
INTERVIEWER Why did the Japanese pavilion opt to focus on the architecture of the 1970s?
ŌTA In considering whether there was a particular period in which Japanese architecture reacted against the modernization taking place in the wider society, the 1970s stood out as a perfect example.
That was the decade when architects like Andō Tadao and Itō Toyoo, who are now globally renowned, prompted a root-and-branch rethink of architecture’s social significance as a profession. Those architects brought about radical initiatives and advocated fundamental change. In present-day Japan, though, you just can’t feel that kind of energy. Our hope was that the exhibition could energize today’s young people who are facing the challenges of contemporary society by conveying to them some of the developments from the 1970s.
It’s possible that the construction industry will see an upturn under the policies of Abenomics, much like it did during the “bubble” years. But that change won’t be of much use if it only takes place on the surface, without solving deeper issues. That’s why we want people to take another look at the 1970s, and at the revolts that took place during that decade thanks to young architects and historians. We hope that this can lead to a fundamental reconsideration of the relationship between society and architecture, including some self-criticism within the industry, and also for people to deeply consider what things are truly necessary.
Equality Is Not Just a Numbers Game
INTERVIEWER You just mentioned the term “Abenomics.” Another recently coined term is “womenomics.” How do you view the employment situation for Japanese women?
ŌTA The idea that something will change simply by increasing the number of women is simplistic. The task also involves undoing all of the long-established, ingrained values of large organizations, so it won’t be so simple. The United States has introduced affirmative action policies that establish quotas for the hiring of ethnic minorities, but that approach has also faced a lot of criticism. It’s much the same in Japan. That is, the issue is not just about increasing the number of women in management positions by a particular amount. The nature of the work must change, too. There’s a limit to what can be achieved by suddenly promoting a lot of women to the top jobs. Such changes need to be combined with a revolution in the value systems of organizations, or it won’t work.
INTERVIEWER How did you manage to gain such an international outlook?
ŌTA As a high school student, I spent some time in America as an exchange student. I experienced how speaking two languages leads to changes, not just in the way you think but even in your very sense of self. At first, I felt a conflict arising from the distance between my Japanese-speaking self and my English-speaking one. But gradually, almost at a subconscious level, I began to adjust and feel as though I could find a way to bridge the gap in culture and values. That ability to achieve a balance by seeing things from multiple perspectives is what people probably mean when they talk about an “international outlook.”
Even though OMA is based in the Netherlands, the lingua franca is English. I remember how, one day, after seven years with the organization, Koolhaas suddenly told me that my English had improved. I hadn’t noticed it myself, but it coincided with a period when I was finally beginning to feel confident that I could get my point across and argue logically with Westerners. It was around that same time that I suddenly began to appreciate the unique qualities of Japan.
(*1) ^ Rem Koolhaas (1944–) is a Dutch architect and urban planner with a host of awards to his name, including the Pritzker Prize (2000), the Praemium Imperiale (2003), and the Golden Lion for Lifetime Achievement at the 2010 Venice Biennale of Architecture. Head of the Office for Metropolitan Architecture (OMA), an architectural firm with offices in cities including Rotterdam, New York, Beijing, Hong Kong and Doha, as well as its own architectural think tank, AMO. Originally a journalist, Koolhaas is noted for his unique approach to research into the role of urbanism and architecture, based on thorough factual analysis. His first book, Delirious New York (1978), is regarded as one of the essential works on modern urbanism and architecture. As director of the 2014 Venice Architecture Biennale, Koolhaas proposed a research project entitled Absorbing Modernity 1914–2014, in which participating nations are invited to look back on their own history as a way of finding a new way forward in restoring the essential richness of architecture worldwide.