- Views Insider’s Guide to Shintō Shrines
- “Shōzoku”: The Shintō Vestments
- [2016.09.05] Read in: 日本語 | FRANÇAIS | ESPAÑOL | العربية | Русский |
The clothing worn by priests and priestesses at Shintō shrines is unlike anything you will see elsewhere in Japan. Here we describe the styles of traditional vestments that are part of the Shintō experience.
The shōzoku (traditional vestments) worn by Shintō priests are quite distinctive in their design. They reflect a court style that originated in ancient China but evolved in a uniquely Japanese direction during the Heian period (794–1185). Today, Shintō priests are the only people who wear such attire. Until recently, these vestments were exclusively male garments, since women were barred from the Shintō priesthood. The shōzoku worn by Shintō priestesses today has been adapted from the traditional male costume.
Shintō vestments fall into three classes: seisō (formal), reisō (ritual), and jōsō (ordinary). Formal seisō vestments are in the style known as ikan, consisting of a colored and sometimes patterned belted robe called a hō over hakama (loose trousers) and worn with a headdress known as a kanmuri (see illustration). These are modeled on the robes of office worn by the ancient nobility.
The color and pattern of the robe is keyed to rank. Ritual reisō vestments are in a style termed saifuku, which differs from the ikan in that the cloth is pure white with no pattern. These vestments are for use exclusively by priests in the performance of Shintō rites. At times they are also used in place of seisō vestments for the most formal rites.
Jōsō (ordinary vestments) are called either jōe, meaning “purified robes,” or kariginu. The kariginu (as the Japanese term suggests) is based on the garments ancient nobles donned when hunting, and it is designed to facilitate movement. As this is the everyday garb of a Shintō priest, it is the style of vestment most often seen by shrine visitors. Priests wearing this costume don a tall hat called an eboshi instead of the kanmuri. The color of the hakama signals rank: gūji and gon-gūji (the highest-ranking priests) wear purple, while negi, gon-negi, and other lesser priests wear light blue.
When attired in Shintō vestments, male priests always bear a baton called a shaku in their right hand and wear low wooden clogs known as asagutsu.
Miko, or “shrine maidens,” typically wear red hakama trousers. Miko are not ordained priestesses but young unmarried women trained to assist with a variety of tasks.
(Banner photo: Priests in traditional attire at Mononobe Shrine, Ōda, Shimane Prefecture.)
Writer and Shintō priest. Born in Saitama Prefecture. Graduated from the Department of Shintō Studies at Kokugakuin University. Author of Shintō nyūmon (Introduction to Shintō), Fuji-san, 2200-nen no himitsu (Mount Fuji’s 2,200-year Secrets), and other works.
- Other articles in this report
- Shintō’s Sacred Forests and Japanese EnvironmentalismToya Manabu explores the historical and spiritual connections between Shintō shrines, the sacred forests that surround them, and environmentalism in Japan.
- Nature Worship in Old ShintōBefore Shintō came to be practiced in constructed shrines, it was centered on the direct worship of nature itself. Toya Manabu surveys the various objects of worship that formed the original focus of Shintō belief.
- “Shamusho”: The Shrine OfficeWhen not engaging in religious rites, priests and shrine personnel may rest in the shamusho, or shrine office. Here visitors can also obtain talismans to protect their homes and selves with the blessing of the shrine’s kami.
- “Shintai, Shinboku”: The Divine Object or TreeAt the heart of the shrine, never viewed by visitors, is the shintai, the “divine body” of the kami. At some shrines this is an object, like a jewel or sword; at others, it is a natural feature like a mountain or shinboku, a divine tree.
- “Honden”: The Main Sanctuary StructureThe structure called the honden is the heart of the Shintō facility, where its kami is enshrined. Observing the details of honden architecture can tell the visitor much about the nature of the shrine and its deity.