- Views Insider’s Guide to Shintō Shrines
- Your Virtual Guide to the Shintō Shrine
- [2016.06.27] Read in: 日本語 | 简体字 | 繁體字 | FRANÇAIS | ESPAÑOL | العربية | Русский |
Every component of a Shintō shrine exists for a reason, and understanding the significance and function of each part is key to a more meaningful shrine experience. In this series of illustrated guides, Shintō priest and writer Toya Manabu introduces the elements of the Shintō shrine in the order in which they appear to you, the visitor, from the distinctive torii gate to the shamusho, the shrine office.
The Shrine Compound
Japan’s indigenous religion, Shintō, has upwards of 100,000 individual shrines large and small, the oldest of which date back more than 2,000 years. Shintō is a polytheistic religion embracing myriad gods, or kami, and most shrines are dedicated to a deity or deities with special connections to that particular locale. At the heart of a typical shrine is the main sanctuary, called the honden, which houses the shintai, a sacred object in which the kami resides. Disposed around this sacred core are a number of other distinctive structures, such as torii gates and a haiden (worship hall), each with its own meaning and attributes. Join me on a virtual pilgrimage for an insider’s view of the Shintō shrine and its component parts.
Torii (shrine gate)
The torii is a gate that stands at the entrance to the sacred area in and around the shrine. The distinctive form of the torii is recognized by people around the world as an icon marking the presence of a Shintō shrine. It is your signal that you are about to enter hallowed space.
Sandō (worshipper’s path)
Shimenawa (sacred rope)
Temizuya (cleansing ritual)
Continuing along the sandō, we come to the temizuya—situated just in front of the last torii gate—where you will find clear, running water. Before proceeding to the haiden, worshippers stop here to wash their hands and rinse their mouths in an act of ritual purification.
Komainu (guardian figures)
A pair of stone lion-dogs (shishi) often flank the sandō near the entrance to the shrine or the haiden (worship hall). These komainu, as the statues are known, are guardian figures believed to protect the space around the kami from evil.
Haiden (hall of worship)
We have reached the haiden, where visitors pray or pay their respects to the kami, or gods of the shrine. The prayers offered up outside the haiden are what we call ryakushiki sanpai, or simplified worship. A more elaborate ritual, referred to as seishiki (formal) sanpai or jōden (in-hall) sanpai, is conducted inside.
Tamagaki (sacred fence)
Honden (main sanctuary)
The honden, where the kami is enshrined, is the shrine’s central structure and its most sacred space. Honden architectural styles vary greatly, depending on the shrine’s divine lineage, but all are ultimately traced either to the taisha-zukuri style of Izumo Taisha or to the shinmei-zukuri style found at Ise Grand Shrine.
Shintai (divine object)・Shinboku (divine tree)
The shintai—literally, the body of the kami—is an object in which the spirit of the kami resides. It is located in the inner sanctum of the honden, called the naijin. (The outer space of the honden, where priests perform their duties, is called the gejin).
Shamusho (shrine office)
The shamusho is a building inside the compound for the conduct of shrine business other than sacred rites and ceremonies. This is where the priests, priestesses, and other shrine personnel rest when they are not performing their sacred duties. It is also where shrines hold lectures and take requests for special prayers or rites.
Shōzoku (Shintō vestments)
The shōzoku (traditional vestments) worn by Shintō priests are quite distinctive in their design. They reflect a court style that originated in ancient China but evolved in a uniquely Japanese direction during the Heian period (794–1185).
(Banner photo: Izumo Taisha. Photo by Nakano Haruo. Illustrations by Izuka Takeshi.)
Writer and Shintō priest. Born in Saitama Prefecture. Graduated from the Department of Shintō Studies at Kokugakuin University. Author of Shintō nyūmon (Introduction to Shintō), Fuji-san, 2200-nen no himitsu (Mount Fuji’s 2,200-year Secrets), and other works.
- Other articles in this report
- Shintō’s Sacred Forests and Japanese EnvironmentalismToya Manabu explores the historical and spiritual connections between Shintō shrines, the sacred forests that surround them, and environmentalism in Japan.
- Nature Worship in Old ShintōBefore Shintō came to be practiced in constructed shrines, it was centered on the direct worship of nature itself. Toya Manabu surveys the various objects of worship that formed the original focus of Shintō belief.
- “Shōzoku”: The Shintō VestmentsThe clothing worn by priests and priestesses at Shintō shrines is unlike anything you will see elsewhere in Japan. Here we describe the styles of traditional vestments that are part of the Shintō experience.
- “Shamusho”: The Shrine OfficeWhen not engaging in religious rites, priests and shrine personnel may rest in the shamusho, or shrine office. Here visitors can also obtain talismans to protect their homes and selves with the blessing of the shrine’s kami.
- “Shintai, Shinboku”: The Divine Object or TreeAt the heart of the shrine, never viewed by visitors, is the shintai, the “divine body” of the kami. At some shrines this is an object, like a jewel or sword; at others, it is a natural feature like a mountain or shinboku, a divine tree.